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Necrotizing enterocolitis is a gastrointestinal disease that involves infection and inflammation that causes damage and the death of cells in some or all of the intestine. Although it affects only one in 2,000 to 4,000 births, necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) emergency in U.S. neonatal intensive care units.
Necrotizing enterocolitis occurs mostly in premature infants (newborns with birth weights of less than 4.5 pounds make up about 80% of necrotizing enterocolitis cases), but full-term babies have also been diagnosed. Necrotizing enterocolitis often develops within the first two weeks of life, usually after milk feeding has begun (at first, feedings are usually given through a tube that goes directly to the baby's stomach). About 10% of infants weighing less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (or 1,500 grams) experience necrotizing enterocolitis. The immature bowels of these babies are sensitive, and prone to infection. They may have difficulty with blood and oxygen circulation and digestion, which increases their chances of developing necrotizing enterocolitis.
Damage to the intestinal tissues can lead to perforation (a hole) in the intestines, allowing bacteria normally present in the intestinal tract to leak out into the abdomen and cause infection. The damage may only exist in a small area, or it may progress quickly to large areas of the intestine.
While there appears to be no single cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, risk factors include premature birth and early feedings in premature babies with an immature gut. Babies who have had difficult deliveries with lowered oxygen levels can also develop necrotizing enterocolitis.
Some experts believe that some cases of necrotizing enterocolitis have to do with the makeup of infant formula, the rate of delivery of the formula, or the immaturity of the mucous membranes in the intestines. Babies who are fed breast milk can also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, but their risk is lower.
Another pattern experts have noticed with necrotizing enterocolitis is that it sometimes seems to occur in "epidemics," affecting several infants in the same nursery. Of course, nurseries have very strict precautions to prevent the spread of infection, so this may be coincidence. However, it does suggest the possibility that necrotizing enterocolitis could in some cases be spread from one baby to another.
Although necrotizing enterocolitis usually occurs between three and 12 days after birth, late onset may occur many weeks after birth. Each baby experiences the symptoms differently, which may include:
During a physical examination, your child's doctor may notice swelling and tenderness in the belly. In some cases, a mass can be felt, indicating a perforation in that area. In other cases, a redness of the abdominal wall can be seen. This may also indicate perforation, as well as inflammation of the membrane lining the abdominal cavity.
To confirm or rule out necrotizing enterocolitis, the doctor will order an abdominal X-ray. An X-ray may show multiple small bubbles in the wall of the intestine (pneumatosis intestinalis). Serial films help assess disease progression. In severe cases, the X-ray may reveal air or gas in the large veins of the liver. This air is produced by bacteria in the wall of the bowel.
Necrotizing enterocolitis can be treated either medically or surgically. If the intestine is not already perforated, and if only a small area of intestine is affected, medical treatment is usually tried first. Sixty to eighty percent of babies with necrotizing enterocolitis do not need surgery to resolve their symptoms. Many of them recover and are able to lead normal lives. Medical treatment includes:
If a child does not respond to medical treatment, or if the intestine is perforated, surgery is needed. A pediatric surgeon examines the intestine and removes only the destroyed parts, leaving as much intestine as possible so that less damaged segments have an opportunity to regain function. In some cases, a drain is placed in the abdomen to remove the infected fluid.
A temporary ostomy (opening in the wall of the abdomen) is created to allow the bowel to recover and heal. Another operation to reexamine the abdomen may be required 24 to 48 hours later to determine if disease has progressed.
Necrotizing enterocolitis can be extremely frightening to parents. It's frustrating not to be able to feed your baby, especially when he or she is so small. It may not be possible to do the holding and bonding that is so important for babies and parents. Try to keep in mind that, with medical treatment, there is a good chance your baby will be back on regular feedings within a short time. Infants who need surgery have a tougher road ahead, but many of them survive. Higher birth weight improves the chances of a good outcome.
Learn more about Intestinal Transplant Disease States.
Children's Hospital's main campus is located in the Lawrenceville neighborhood. Our main hospital address is:
Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
One Children’s Hospital Way
4401 Penn Ave.
Pittsburgh, PA 15224
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