Your health can’t wait. Learn how we’re making our facilities safer and schedule your care now.
Children's Hospital is part of the UPMC family.
Be safe anytime, anywhere.
To find a pediatrician or pediatric specialist, please call 412-692-7337 or search our directory.
A resource for our network of referring physicians.
For more information about research, please call our main office at 412-692-6438.
Ranked #9 Nationally by U.S. News & World Report.
A barium enema is used to coat the lining of the colon and rectum. It is done before X-rays are taken, in order to create clearer images of the lower intestine. A barium solution is given into the rectum. Barium (bare-ee-um) is a thick, milky fluid that absorbs X-rays.
You might also hear doctors refer to the barium enema test as a "barium X-ray", "lower GI series", "lower GI" or "lower gastrointestinal series".
A barium enema is done to enhance X-ray images. The barium coats the lining of the colon and rectum and makes these organs, and any signs of disease in them, show up more clearly on X-rays. It also helps the radiologist (doctor who specializes in reading X-rays) see the size and shape of the colon and rectum. Your doctor uses these X-rays to diagnose problems in your child's large intestine. A barium enema can detect the following:
Your child's colon must be empty for the barium enema procedure to be accurate. The day before the test, your child may be asked to prepare by taking some of the following steps:
Your child's doctor may give other special instructions.
Your child will put on a hospital gown and lie on an X-ray table. The room will be darkened during the test.
A well-lubricated enema tube is gently inserted into your child's rectum. Barium is injected through this tube into the colon and rectum. A small balloon at the end of the tube is inflated to keep the barium inside.
While the barium is inside, X-rays are taken. The X-ray table will be tilted to different positions. Your child will be asked to hold his or her breath at certain times so that the X-ray image will not be blurred by movement. Your child may also need to change positions as directed by the technician. Different positions give different views of the intestine.
A barium enema can be uncomfortable, but it is not painful. Usually anesthesia is not given. In some cases, your child may be given an injection to relax his or her rectum. Your child may feel some discomfort when the enema tube is inserted. During the test, your child might experience bloating and cramping, or feel like he or she needs to have a bowel movement. Your child is unlikely to have an accident, though. The tube used to inject the barium has a balloon on the end of it that prevents the liquid from coming back out. The barium is what causes that sensation of fullness and pressure in the abdomen. The entire procedure will take one to two hours.
After X-rays are taken, the enema tube is removed, and your child will be able to go to the bathroom. The X-ray technician sometimes also takes an X-ray of the empty colon afterwards. This is called a double air contrast examination. After the enema tube is reinserted, a small amount of air is injected into the colon. More X-rays are taken, and then the tube is once again removed. Afterwards, your child may return to the bathroom to expel air and any remaining barium.
Unless your child is an inpatient at the hospital for another reason, there is no hospital stay involved. However, your child will likely feel some mild to moderate abdominal cramping. He or she may want to rest or stay near the bathroom at the hospital for awhile before going home.
Your child can return to his or her regular diet immediately following the test. The same goes for regular activities; as soon as your child feels able to do them.
Have your child drink lots of fluids, because barium can cause dehydration. In addition, barium causes constipation, which is why your child may need a laxative. For up to two or three days after the test, your child's bowel movements may appear white or gray. This is also due to the barium, and no cause for alarm.
A radiologist will examine the X-rays. (In rare cases, if the X-rays are blurred, the test may have to be repeated.) Your child's doctor will normally tell you the results within three to five days. If the results are abnormal, the doctor will recommend follow-up testing and treatment options.
Get the Barium Enema Patient Procedure.
Learn about other Intestine Transplant Tests.
Children's Hospital's main campus is located in the Lawrenceville neighborhood. Our main hospital address is:
UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh
One Children’s Hospital Way
4401 Penn Ave.
Pittsburgh, PA 15224
In addition to the main hospital, Children's has many convenient locations in other neighborhoods throughout the greater Pittsburgh region.
With myCHP, you can request appointments, review test results, and more.
For questions about a hospital bill call:
To pay your bill online, please visit UPMC's online bill payment system.
Interested in giving to Children's Hospital? Support the hospital by making a donation online, joining our Heroes in Healing monthly donor program, or visiting our site to learn about the other ways you can give back.